Made of components found in the human body, the programmable system is a step toward safer, targeted delivery of gene editing and other molecular therapeutics.
Source: [Broad Institute | August 19, 2021]
The following press release was issued by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.
Researchers from MIT, the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard have developed a new way to deliver molecular therapies to cells. The system, called SEND, can be programmed to encapsulate and deliver different RNA cargoes. SEND harnesses natural proteins in the body that form virus-like particles and bind RNA, and it may provoke less of an immune response than other delivery approaches.
The new delivery platform works efficiently in cell models, and, with further development, could open up a new class of delivery methods for a wide range of molecular medicines — including those for gene editing and gene replacement. Existing delivery vehicles for these therapeutics can be inefficient and randomly integrate into the genome of cells, and some can stimulate unwanted immune reactions. SEND has the promise to overcome these limitations, which could open up new opportunities to deploy molecular medicine.
“The biomedical community has been developing powerful molecular therapeutics, but delivering them to cells in a precise and efficient way is challenging,” said CRISPR pioneer Feng Zhang, senior author on the study, core institute member at the Broad Institute, investigator at the McGovern Institute, and the James and Patricia Poitras Professor of Neuroscience at MIT. “SEND has the potential to overcome these challenges.” Zhang is also an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and a professor in MIT’s Departments of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Biological Engineering.
Reporting in Science, the team describes how SEND (Selective Endogenous eNcapsidation for cellular Delivery) takes advantage of molecules made by human cells. At the center of SEND is a protein called PEG10, which normally binds to its own mRNA and forms a spherical protective capsule around it. In their study, the team engineered PEG10 to selectively package and deliver other RNA. The scientists used SEND to deliver the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to mouse and human cells to edit targeted genes.
First author Michael Segel, a postdoctoral researcher in Zhang’s lab, and Blake Lash, second author and a graduate student in the lab, said PEG10 is not unique in its ability to transfer RNA. “That’s what’s so exciting,” said Segel. “This study shows that there are probably other RNA transfer systems in the human body that can also be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. It also raises some really fascinating questions about what the natural roles of these proteins might be.”
Inspiration from within
The PEG10 protein exists naturally in humans and is derived from a “retrotransposon” — a virus-like genetic element — that integrated itself into the genome of human ancestors millions of years ago. Over time, PEG10 has been co-opted by the body to become part of the repertoire of proteins important for life.